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The external surface is densely covered with flat tile-like cells closely resembling sponge pinacocytes, and this layer is punctuated with smaller pores. In modern phylogenomic analyses, elegant computational algorithms are applied to sequence divergence data from very large sets of genomic protein and other sequences so as to establish evolutionary branching order, and thus patterns of relatedness among animal clades.

A dense patch of external structures that display the form of a lawn of sponge papillae has also survived. Key branch points can then be referred to real time by use of extrapolations from calibrations afforded by the dated fossil record.

Tantalizing paleontological claims of the Precambrian fossils that display one or another sponge-like characteristic have appeared in recent years, as critically reviewed by Antcliffe et al. We leave aside isolated objects that are claimed to be fossilized siliceous spicules, because these objects have little morphological information content, and also the numerous claims of fossilized sponge-grade organisms from several parts of the world dating to about 555 Ma, close to the Precambrian/Cambrian boundary.

There remain, however, several proposed sponge-like fossils of sufficiently deep temporal provenance to be relevant in principle to the phylogenomic predictions, although it must be noted that none are accepted as fossil sponges in the study by Antcliffe et al. Among these putative fossilized sponges are thin-walled, hollow microfossils, perforated by various openings, found in rocks as old as 760 million years (Myr) old (9); asymmetrical ellipsoid forms that appear to be perforated with interconnecting canals of pre-Marinoan Cryogenian age when tomographically reconstructed from images of serial surfaces (10); and a macroscopic triangular impression fossil interpreted as the remains of a conical sponge-like form of Ediacaran age, about 575 Myr old (11).

I am currently trying to format the reference list of my latest article for Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

Unfortunately, PNAS has its own reference style, and it is minimally documented in the intructions for authors. All authors (unless there are more than more than five) should be named in the citation.

This inference implies a long Precambrian history of animals phylogenetically allied with sponges.

Despite phylogenomic extrapolations that indicate divergence of sponge lineages from eumetazoan lineages deep in Precambrian time, lack of substantial paleontological evidence directly supporting this prediction has thus remained frustrating.

So far, we have only this single specimen, and although its organized and complex cellular structure precludes any reasonable interpretation that its origin is abiogenic, confirmation that it is indeed a fossilized sponge will clearly require discovery of additional specimens. Canfield, Institute of Biology and Nordic Center for Earth Evolution, University of Southern Denmark, Odense M., Denmark, and approved February 6, 2015 (received for review July 30, 2014)Author contributions: M. From the enormous and detailed overlap in the gene toolkit of sponges and eumetazoans (4, 5), there can be little doubt that these two lineages indeed derived from a common ancestor.

The character set evinced by this specimen, ranging from general anatomy to cell type, uniquely indicates that this specimen is a fossil of probable poriferan affinity.

If there are more than five, list the first author’s name followed by et al.

Provide volume and issue numbers for journal articles as applicable; provide DOI numbers if volume/issue numbers are not available. Journal articles are cited as follows: I tried to find in published articles an example of a reference for a book chapter in a series of book but couldn't find it.

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